Facing grim economic prospects at home, desperate young Egyptians are seeking jobs in Libya - a country sliding into lawlessness where armed groups battle for control and dozens of their compatriots have been kidnapped.
Tackling unemployment in Egypt - where half of the rapidly growing population is under 25 - is one of the toughest challenges facing President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi.
He rules a country that has seen two presidents deposed in the past four years. The 2011 popular uprising that toppled autocrat Hosni Mubarak was fuelled by anger over joblessness.
Affording a home and getting married is still difficult under Sisi for many young men unable to make a living.
The political and social unrest since Mubarak was ousted has deterred foreign investors and tourists from Egypt, the world's most populous Arab nation with 90 million people. This has exacerbated the jobs crisis, and the unemployment rate has climbed from 8.9 percent to 13 percent in that time.
Thousands of Egyptians have travelled to neighbouring Libya in search of jobs since 2011, despite their government advising against going to one of the most dangerous countries in the region.
They can be seen working in building sites, factories, restaurants and shops in cities across Libya, which has descended into chaos since a revolt toppled Muammar Gaddafi four years ago and where two rival governments vie for power.
In the Egyptian village of Al-Our, about 200 km (125 miles) south of Cairo, it is easy to see why young men take the risk.
There are no paved roads, clean drinking water or adequate health care - the kind of conditions that have driven young men to give up on the state and join militant groups in the past.
Jobless men sit beside a canal filled with stinking, stagnant water.
Samuel Alham lived with his wife and three children, his three siblings and their children, and his elderly parents in a small cement house. Like many young Egyptians, he dreams of one day buying a small plot of land to build his own home.
The 30-year-old’s decision to go to Libya to work as a plumber was costly. In December, he was kidnapped on his way back to Egypt.
نستخدم ملفات الكوكيز لنسهل عليك استخدام مواقعنا الإلكترونية ونكيف المحتوى والإعلانات وفقا لمتطلباتك واحتياجاتك الخاصة، لتوفير ميزات وسائل التواصل الاجتماعية ولتحليل حركة المرور لدينا...اعرف أكثر