Iraq is one of the world’s oldest nations and civilizations. Although today’s Iraq is the product of a nation-state that emerged during the last century, it has always remained, like Egypt, united within the borders of Mesopotamia. After the defeat of the Ottomans in World War II, the British took over Iraq’s administration under the Sykes-Picot agreement. Winston Churchill designed the modern Iraqi state at the Cairo Conference in 1921, thus it became a parliamentary monarchy. After the Ottomans, the Abbasids and Umayyads, the British also maintained the unity of Iraq. Lawrence of Arabia considered Iraq the center of the region; he believed that modernization would take place in Baghdad, not in Damascus. The British forced the Kurds to be part of a unified Iraq and rejected that Mosul be part of Turkey. The Turks, however, considered Mosul as part of their new republic. The British administration resorted to a referendum in Mosul, and the residents chose to remain Iraqis. Hashemite kings have preserved Iraq and so did the Baathists. Even after the U.S. occupation, Americans insisted on keeping Kurdistan within the borders of Iraq. As for Nouri al-Maliki, whose mandate in office has ended, he has secured himself a place in the annals of history as the man who divided Iraq. He is the first ruler in a thousand years to cause the disintegration of Iraq - no dictators or foreign occupiers did that. Maliki did what Hajjaj al-Thaqafi, the Mongol Hulagu, Percy Cox, King Faisal al-Hashemi, and America’s Paul Bremer failed to do!
The Arab Sunnis have suffered more than the Kurds under Maliki’s rule; they are both facing the same fateAbdulrahman al-Rashed