Kazakhstan is experiencing the worst street protests the country has seen since gaining independence three decades ago. Government buildings have been set ablaze and at least eight law enforcement officers have been killed.
The outburst of instability is causing significant concern in Kazakhstan’s two powerful neighbors: Russia and China. The country sells most of its oil exports to China and is a key strategic ally of Moscow.
A sudden spike in the price of car fuel at the start of the year triggered the first protests in a remote oil town in the west. But the tens of thousands who have since surged onto the streets across more than a dozen cities and towns now have the entire authoritarian government in their sights.
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev has cut an increasingly desperate figure. He first sought to mollify the crowds by dismissing the entire government early Wednesday. But by the end of the day he had changed tack. First, he described demonstrators as terrorists. Then he appealed to a Russian-led military alliance, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, for help in crushing the uprising and the CSTO agreed to send an unspecified number of peacekeepers.
Why are people angry?
Of the five Central Asian republics that gained independence following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan is by far the largest and the wealthiest. It spans a territory the size of Western Europe and sits atop colossal reserves of oil, natural gas, uranium, and precious metals.
But while Kazakhstan’s natural riches have helped it cultivate a solid middle class, as well as a substantial cohort of ultrarich tycoons, financial hardship is widespread. The average national monthly salary is just under $600. The banking system has fallen prey to deep crises precipitated by non-performing loans. As in much of the rest of the region, petty corruption is rampant.
The rally that set off the latest crisis took place in the dusty western oil town of Zhanaozen. Resentments have long festered in the area over a sense that the region’s energy riches haven’t been fairly spread among the local population. In 2011, police shot dead at least 15 people in the city who were protesting in support of oil workers dismissed after a strike.
When prices for the liquified petroleum gas most people in the area use to power their cars doubled overnight Saturday, patience snapped. Residents in nearby cities quickly joined in and within days large protests had spread to the rest of the country.
Who is leading the protests?
The suppression of critical voices in Kazakhstan has long been the norm. Any figures aspiring to oppose the government have either been repressed, sidelined, or coopted. So although these demonstrations have been unusually large — some drawing more than 10,000 people, a large number for Kazakhstan — no protest movement leaders have emerged.
For most of Kazakhstan’s recent history power was held in the hands of former President Nursultan Nazarbayev. That changed in 2019 when Nazarbayev, now 81, stepped aside and anointed his long-time ally Tokayev as his successor. In his capacity as head of the security council that oversees the military and security services, Nazarbayev continued to retain considerable sway over the country. Tokayev announced Wednesday that he was taking over from Nazarbayev as security council head.
Much of the anger displayed on the streets in recent days was directed not at Tokayev, but at Nazarbayev, who is still widely deemed the country’s ultimate ruler. The slogan “Shal ket!” (“Old man go”) has become a main slogan.
How are the authorities responding?
The initial reaction was in keeping with usual policy in the face of public discontent. Police and the National Guard have been deployed in large numbers. The crowd that made its way to City Hall in the commercial capital, Almaty, early Wednesday was met by large phalanxes of riot police and armored personnel carriers. While gatherings are normally dispersed with ease, the number of people on the street this time was too large.
With government buildings coming under assault in several large cities, Tokayev appealed for help from the Collective Security Treaty Organization, a Moscow-led military alliance. He justified the appeal for external intervention by claiming the protesters were operating at the behest of international terrorist groups. He offered no details on what he meant by that.
Is the govenrment likely to be toppled?
This is uncharted territory for Kazakhstan. The country has seen major demonstrations before: In 2016, after the passage of a contentious land law. And again in 2019, after the contentious election that secured Tokayev’s hold on power. But never anything on this scale.
In one of his appeals to the public Wednesday, Tokayev pledged to pursue reforms and hinted that political liberalization might be possible. His darker remarks toward the end of the day, however, suggested he would instead go down a more repressive road.
Still, because the street protests are so lacking in focus, at least for now, it’s difficult to see how they might end. But even if they fail to topple the government, it looks possible they might lead to deep transformation. What is not clear is what that might mean.
Moscow-led alliance sends first troops to Kazakhstan: Statement
Flydubai, Air Arabia cancel flights to Kazakhstan’s Almaty
Russia urges ‘dialogue’ not ‘riots’ in Kazakhstan after protests over fuel price
Moscow-led alliance sends first troops to Kazakhstan: StatementA Moscow-led military alliance said Thursday it had sent its first troops to Kazakhstan after its government requested help to quell mounting ... World News
Flydubai, Air Arabia cancel flights to Kazakhstan’s AlmatyMiddle East carriers flydubai and Air Arabia canceled services to Kazakhstan’s largest city, Almaty, on Thursday as the Central Asian country faces ... Middle East
Kazakhstan's president fails to quell protests, 8 deaths reportedProtests around Kazakhstan have killed eight security personnel and injured 317, a news agency said on Wednesday, as President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev ... World News
Kuwait's Jazeera Airways suspends Kazakhstan flights amid unrestKuwaiti budget carrier Jazeera Airways on Wednesday suspended flights to Kazakhstan's biggest city Almaty as violent protests against the government ... Gulf
Russia urges ‘dialogue’ not ‘riots’ in Kazakhstan after protests over fuel priceRussia on Wednesday urged “dialogue” in ex-Soviet Kazakhstan as unprecedented unrest spun out of control over an energy price increase in the Central ... World News
Kazakhstan government resigns after violent protests over fuel priceKazakh President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev accepted the government’s resignation on Wednesday, his office said, after a fuel price increase in the ... World News
Protests erupt in Kazakhstan after fuel price riseProtests have erupted in several Kazakh towns and cities after the Central Asian nation’s government lifted price caps on liquefied petroleum gas ... World News