The period following the emergence of Islam in the seventh century witnessed intense struggle and competition between Arabs and non-Arabs. Events display the tendency of non-Arab kings to be influenced by Arab and Islamic culture.
Cefalu's Cathedral, one of the most interesting buildings in Sicily, originated by the Norman King Roger II, consecrated in 1267. Reflects Norman, Latin, Greek, and Arab architectural influences. (Vladimir Korostyshevskiy/Shutterstock)
Alfonso X at the National Library, Spain. ( Merce Divad/Wikimedia Commons)