Prophet Mohammed, peace and prayer be upon him, sent several letters to kings and rulers outside the Arabian Peninsula to invite them to Islam.
In a letter sent to Egyptian ruler Al-Muqawqis in the sixth year of hijri, the prophet invited him to Islam and said if he becomes a Muslim, Allah will double his reward.
The prophet also cited the surah: Say, ‘O People of the Scripture, come to a word that is equitable between us and you - that we will not worship except Allah and not associate anything with Him and not take one another as lords instead of Allah.’ But if they turn away, then say: ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims [submitting to Him].’
The prophet also sent letters to Emperor Ashama ibn Abjar in Ethiopia, Heraclius, the emperor of the Byzantine Empire, Chosroes, the king of Persia, Munzir ibn Sawa, the ruler of Bahrain, Himyarite Harith, the prince of Yemen, and Harith Gassani, the governor of Sham.
The prophet’s letters inviting kings and princes to follow Islam were all concluded with the statement: If turn away, you will bear the sin of your followers.
According to some historic narratives, Chosroes of Persia tore the prophet’s letter. When the prophet heard that, he promised the destruction of Chosroes and the latter died shortly after and the empire weakened.
Some of these letters are kept in the Istanbul museum while the Medina Museum in Saudi Arabia keeps the original copies of these letters.
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